Under the Kyoto Protocol, all Annex I countries listed in Annex I (Appendix I) have committed themselves to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 5.1% under the levels of the year 1990 by 2020. The term Annex-I-States is also used as a synonym for all industrialized countries and includes all OECD countries (except South Korea and Mexico), it also includes all Eastern European countries (except the Balkan states).