Glossary | Climate Lexicon G

carbon-connect AG Climate Glossary with common technical terms, abbreviations and explanations on the topics of the environment, climate protection and CO2 compensation.

German electricity mix

The German electricity mix indicates the primary energy sources from which electricity is produced. The share of renewable energies was 54% in 2021. The non-renewable share consists of: Lignite, Hard Coal, Nuclear and Natural Gas, Renewables includes: Hydro, wind, biomass and photovoltaic.

GHG Protocol

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) is an internationally recognized framework that helps companies and organizations track, understand, and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. It provides a methodology for capturing and reporting emissions from a variety of sources, including energy, processes, supply chains, and products. Jointly administered by the World Bank and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the GHG Protocol is an important standard for climate change reporting by companies and governments. The GHG Protocol has now become a global standard in CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions accounting. The GHG Protocol divides greenhouse gas emissions into 3 emissions scopes; Scope 1, Scope 2 and Scope 3.


GHG-Emissions stands for greenhouse gas emissions and are gases that trap heat in the atmosphere, contributing to global warming. The most important GHG emissions include methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and the fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases): hydrogen-containing hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Emissions are stated in CO2 equivalents (CO2-eq) in each case.

Global Compact / United Nations Global Compact

Global Compact is a global agreement which was formed between companies and the UN to make the topic of globalization ecological and social. In 1999, the initiative for the pact was offered at the WEF in Davos by Kofi Annan. Operationally, the alliance was launched in New York in July 2000. Up to now, more than 20,000 participants in over 170 countries have joined this pact. Companies signing the pact vow to respect and promote human rights, oppose and exclude forced and child labor, oppose and exclude all forms of discrimination, promote environmental awareness, oppose any form of corruption, promote the development of green technologies, and also recognize workers' rights to organize in trade unions.

Global Warming Potential (GWP)

The relative global warming potential (GWP) or CO2 equivalent indicates how much a specified quantity of a greenhouse gas contributes to the greenhouse effect. This value describes the average warming effect over a certain period of time; 100 years are often considered. Carbon dioxide is used as a comparative value, with the abbreviation CO2-eq (for equivalent). With this concept, the different contributions of individual greenhouse gases can be compared for known emission quantities. In the Kyoto Protocol, emission quantities are evaluated and weighted using the CO2 equivalents of the individual gases.

Global Mean Surface Temperature

The global mean surface temperature is determined worldwide by thousands of measuring stations. The global temperature curve shows strong fluctuations, 2015 was one of the warmest years globally, followed by the years 2014, 2013, 2010, 2015, 2016 and 2018.

Gulf Stream

The Gulf Stream is a powerful ocean current that transports warm water from the Gulf of Mexico northeastward toward Europe. This current has a strong influence on the climate in Europe and North America, because it provides milder temperatures and higher precipitation.

The Gulf Stream is driven by the winds and tides, and its strength and route can change over time. A decrease in the Gulf Stream could cause Europe to become colder and drier.

Grey Energy

Grey energy refers to the energy that is used during the production of goods and services, excluding the energy that is used to operate the final product. Grey energy takes into account all the energy inputs, including the energy used to extract raw materials, manufacture and transport products, and construct infrastructure. This energy is often overlooked when assessing the total energy consumption of a product, as it is embodied in the product itself and not directly consumed by the end-user. Grey energy is an important factor in life cycle analysis and sustainability assessments, as it provides a more complete picture of the total energy consumption associated with a product. By considering the grey energy, it is possible to identify opportunities for reducing energy consumption and emissions throughout the entire product life cycle.

Green Deal EU

The European Green Deal is a European Commission plan to make the European Union's economy sustainable by turning climate and environmental challenges into opportunities without leaving anyone behind. It aims to make Europe the first carbon-neutral continent by 2050 by investing in clean energy, increasing energy efficiency, protecting biodiversity and promoting sustainable growth. The plan includes a number of proposals, such as cutting greenhouse gas emissions by 55% by 2030, a goal to increase the share of renewable energy to at least 32%, and a plan to restore at least 30% of the EU's land and marine areas. The plan also includes proposals to improve air and water quality, reduce waste, and promote sustainable consumption and production.