The Fuel Cell
A fuel cell generates electricity from a controlled electrochemical reaction between hydrogen or another fuel and oxygen. Instead of harmful emissions, only harmless water vapor remains at the end. After years of research, Toyota is launching a fuel cell car in 2015. The technology uses hydrogen to generate electricity on board.
Fuel cells are used in many applications, such as space travel, stationary and mobile applications, housing and building technology, and the automotive industry. They have the advantage of being very efficient and having almost no emissions.
One disadvantage of fuel cells is that they cannot yet be mass produced and are therefore more expensive than other energy sources.
There are several types of fuel cells, such as PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cells, SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell), and MCFC (molten carbonate fuel cell). Each has its own applications and advantages.