Glossary | Climate Lexicon C

carbon-connect AG Climate Glossary with common technical terms, abbreviations and explanations on the topics of the environment, climate protection and CO2 compensation.

Carbon Accounting

Carbon accounting is the systematic recording of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Companies, the public sector, and organizations thus create a greenhouse gas balance (CO2 balance). Carbon accounting is usually part of environmental and sustainability management.

Carbon Dioxide Concentration

Carbon Dioxide Concentration refers to the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide concentration is measured in ppm (parts per million).

Carbon Market Watch

In 2009, Carbon Market Watch was launched by several non-government organizations, with the aim of inspecting emission trading and promoting fair and effective climate protection. Carbon Market Watch covers the following areas: United Nations, Europe and the Southern Hemisphere.

CC (Corporate Citizenship)

Is part of the social responsibility of companies to solve social problems within the direct and local sphere of a company.

CCS (Carbon Capture Storage)

Carbon Capture Storage is a new and controversial technology to capture carbon store it subterranean. With a highly complex and expensive technology, carbon dioxide is washed out of industrial plants and pressed into old deposits or on the seabed instead of letting it escape into the atmosphere.

CDM (Clean Development Mechanism)

The Clean Development Mechanism is one of three flexible mechanisms for reducing greenhouse gases and has its origins in the Kyoto Protocol. The main objective of the CDM is to help developing countries fight climate change and promote sustainable development. The CO2 emissions saved in related projects in developing countries are subsequently credited to the industrialized countries.

CDM Gold Standard

The CDM Gold Standard refers to CO2 reduction projects with a particularly high quality taking place in developing countries. Not only ecological are important. Social criteria play an important role here in ensuring a sustainable development.

CDP (Carbon Disclosure Project)

The Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) was founded in the year 2000 as a non-profit organization in London. The goal of CDP is to encourage businesses and the public hand to disclose environmental data, including climate-damaging greenhouse gas emissions as well as water consumption. The survey is conducted by means of an annual standardized questionnaire. Up to now, over 800 institutional investors have been participating in this annual survey.

CER (Certified Emission Reductions)

Certified Emission Reductions, or Certified Emission Reduction Credits.

CFC / Hydrofluorocarbon

CFCs or chlorofluorocarbons are among the longest lasting greenhouse gases and lead to global warming. The first CFC-free refrigerator was manufactured in 1992. Since the year 2000, household and commercial refrigerators are produced with a new, different refrigerant. The mixture consists of propane and butane and does not increase the greenhouse effect, but unfortunately, it is flammable.


The Term Climate denotes the average of meteorological processes over a period of at least 30 years in one specific location.

Climate Compensation

Climate compensation is an instrument for climate protection that mitigates greenhouse gas emissions by simply reducing them or by storing CO2 (through forests, reforestation) elsewhere. Net greenhouse gas emission remains the same. In practice, climate compensation allows unavoidable greenhouse gas emissions to be compensated elsewhere by financing climate protection projects elsewhere. It does not matter to the atmosphere where on our planet CO2 is emitted and where it is saved again.

Climate Protection Project

A climate protection project reduces greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels with renewable energies. This happens when a coal power plant will be replaced by a wind farm to generate electricity, for example. The mechanism originates from the Kyoto Protocol for the reduction of greenhouse gases, and is an instrument for effective climate compensation. The most common climate protection projects are permanent CO2 indents, which are arranged through afforestation or renewable energy projects (e.g.: wind turbines, solar plants, hydropower projects).

Climate System

The climate system consists of various subsystems, which interact with each other. The climate system consists of five main components: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere (oceans, rivers, lakes), the cryosphere (ice and snow), the biosphere (on land and in the ocean), and the pedosphere and lithosphere (soils and solid rock). The climate system is changes from time to time. This change can be sparked by external causes (volcanic eruption) or by an internal dynamic.


Climateology is the science of the following disciplines: meteorology, geography, geology, oceanography, and physics. Climateology explores the regularities of the climate.

CO2 Accounting / Carbon Footprint

The carbon footprint or CO2 footprint is a measurement of the total amount of CO2 emissions directly or indirectly caused by an activity, a company, or a process. The gross carbon footprint per capita in Germany is 14 tons of CO2 per year in Germany, 15 tons of CO2 in Switzerland, 16.5 tons of CO2 in the United States, and in Qatar 40.37 tons of CO2 in Qatar.

CO2 Indents

CO2 indentations or carbon indentations are ecosystems that permanently absorb or store CO2 such as bogs, soils, forests and oceans. In general, every ecosystem that absorbs more CO2 than it releases it is called a CO2 indent. The Southern Ocean covers just a quarter of the total ocean surface but absorbs 40% of man-made CO2 emissions which are absorbed by all the world's oceans.

CO2 Certificate

CO2 certificates are a volume unit for emissions that are compensated. One CO2 certificate equals to one ton of CO2. Please also view the CO2 equivalents.

CO2eq / Carbon Dioxide Equivalents

CO2eq means carbon dioxide equivalents. CO2 is the best-known greenhouse gas but not the only one. Key greenhouse gases and their CO2 equivalent include the following:

Greenhouse gas:                                                             CO2 equivalent:

Carbon dioxide                                                                1

Methane (CH4)                                                                25

Nitrous oxide / nitric oxide (N2O)                                 298

Fluoroform (HFC-23)                                                      14800

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)                                                22800

Compensation Services

Various companies appear on the market as compensation services, and offer the neutralization of products, processes, services, companies and events. Products, processes or companies whose emissions are fully compensated are denoted as climate-friendly or climate-neutral. In Europe, companies have the biggest demand for compensation services. They help to reduce the carbon footprint of a company, individual products, or specific processes such as business trips or the fleet(vehicles).

CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)

Corporate Social Responsibility describes the voluntary contribution of the economy to developments which are sustainable. This term stands for responsible corporate behavior and includes environmentally relevant aspect, a company’s relationships with employees and suppliers, as well as with its stakeholders. It is a voluntary contribution by companies that goes beyond legal requirements and compliance.