Glossary | Climate Lexicon S

carbon-connect AG Climate Glossary with common technical terms, abbreviations and explanations on the topics of the environment, climate protection and CO2 compensation.

SBTi (Science Based Targets Initiative)

SBTi stands for Science Based Targets initiative, a collaboration between the United Nations Global Compact, World Resources Institute (WRI), World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), and CDP (formerly known as the Carbon Disclosure Project). The initiative helps companies set science-based targets for reducing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in line with the goal of limiting global warming to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit warming to 1.5°C. By setting science-based targets, companies can play a significant role in mitigating the impacts of climate change and transition to a low-carbon economy.

Swiss Electricity Mix

The Swiss Electricity Mix portraits which energy sources provide energy to Switzerland. The main column of the Swiss electricity mix is hydropower with over 55%, followed by uranium (38%), and renewable energies with just under 4%. Over 500 hydropower plants with around 160 storage lakes and about 1,000 smaller hydropower plants generate 34 terawatt hours (TWh) of electricity per year, which amounts to almost 60% of the electricity produced in Switzerland. From an ecological point of view, the current Swiss electricity mix is extremely low in CO2 and is considered climate neutral, de facto.

Scope 1 CO2 emissions

Scope 1 CO2 emissions refer to emissions that are released directly into the atmosphere as a result of a company's activities. These emissions come from sources owned or controlled by the company, such as the combustion of fuel in vehicles and buildings.

  • Stationary combustion: Direct emissions that are generated during operations in the fiscal year. (e.g. heating systems or during production).
  • Mobile combustion: Direct emissions generated during the combustion of fuel in company vehicles.
  • Direct emissions of fugitive gases (e.g. refrigerant leakage from air conditioning systems).


Scope 1, Scope 2 & Scope 3

Scope 1, 2, and 3 refer to the three categories of greenhouse gas emissions used in corporate and organizational accounting and reporting.

  • Scope 1: Direct emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the organization, such as emissions from combustion of fossil fuels in boilers, vehicles, and other equipment.
  • Scope 2: Indirect emissions from the generation of electricity, heating, and cooling that are consumed by the organization.
  • Scope 3: All other indirect emissions that are not included in Scope 2, such as emissions from the production of purchased goods and services, employee commuting, and waste disposal.

Organizations often focus on reducing their Scope 1 and 2 emissions as these are directly under their control, while Scope 3 emissions are more challenging to reduce but are still important to consider and monitor. A comprehensive approach to emissions reporting and reduction considers emissions from all three scopes to accurately reflect an organization's total corporate carbon footprint.

Scope 2 emissions

Scope 2 emissions refer to indirect greenhouse gas emissions from the consumption of purchased electricity, heat or steam by a company or organization. These emissions are caused by purchased energy generation. Companies can reduce their Scope 2 emissions by sourcing renewable energy and increasing energy efficiency.

Scope 1 Scope 2 Scope 3 carbon emissions GHG Protocol

Scope 3 emissions

Scope 3 emissions refer to all indirect emissions from sources not owned or controlled by a company but resulting from its activities. These include emissions from upstream and downstream supply chains, employee commuting and business travel, and end-of-life disposal of waste and products. Companies can reduce their Scope 3 emissions by improving their supply chain management, promoting sustainable transportation and reducing waste.

SDGs Sustainable Development Goals

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a set of 17 global goals and 169 specific targets adopted by the United Nations in 2015 as part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The SDGs aim to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people live in peace and prosperity by 2030. The 17 SDGs are:$

  • No poverty
  • No hunger
  • Good health and well-being
  • Good education
  • Gender equality
  • Clean water and sanitation
  • Affordable and clean energy
  • Decent work and economic growth
  • Industry, innovation and infrastructure
  • Reduced inequalities
  • Sustainable cities and communities
  • Responsible consumption and production
  • Climate policy
  • Life under water
  • Life on land
  • Peace, justice and strong institutions
  • Partnerships for the goals

The SDGs are intended to be universal, integrated, and transformative, meaning they apply to all countries, are interconnected, and require fundamental changes in the way societies function. The SDGs are to be achieved through collaboration among governments, the private sector, civil society, and individuals, and through partnerships at the national, regional, and global levels.

Social Sponsorship

Social Sponsorship means sponsoring money, or providing services and benefits by companies for the purpose of promoting social work. Social sponsoring is based on the principle of performance and compensation. The sponsor expects something in return, e.g. through getting his/her company’s image promoted.

Soil Temperature

The surface temperature is the temperature near the earth’s surface and is measured within the top 10 cm.


Stakeholder(s) denotes a group or person who has, or is affected, by a legitimate interest in the course or outcome of a process / project.

Sustainability Report

A sustainability report is an official document in which a company or an organization shows and explains its achievements in the areas of environment, social responsibility and economic performance. Sustainability reports serve to inform the public and stakeholders about the company's efforts to operate sustainably and contribute to transparency. Sustainability reports often include information on energy consumption, CO2 emissions, waste and resource management, social responsibility and the use of human rights, and economic performance. Sustainability reports are an important aspect of a company's reputation management and help to demonstrate its responsibility for a sustainable future.